Nick Wade

(+44)(1382) 384616
Emeritus Professor


My research covers three main topics:

(1) The representation of space and motion in human vision. This has the aim of developing a model of space and motion perception in terms of nested frames of reference defined by the articulations of the body. The model has been expanded to incorporate orientation perception.

(2) The history of research in visual science, with the aim of providing an account the development of experimental methods in vision, particularly those concerned with stereoscopic vision.

(3) The relationship between visual science and visual art. This has the aim of fostering a closer association between the graphical language of art (particularly geometrical abstraction) and the interpretative language of science.

I am involved in active international collaboration with Prof. S. Finger, Washington University, St. Louis; Dr. B. Lingelbach, University of Aalen; Prof. H. Ono, York University, Canada; and Prof. Marco Piccolino, University of Ferrara.

See further information:

  • The Word Perception
  • Visit Visionaries: a set of illustrations by Nicholas Wade of famous men in the the history of perception research.
  • Fooling the eyes: trompe l'oeil and reverse perspective - supplementary material (Mondrians animation and Cloudy Doors 3-D model to cut out and assemble) that accompanies Wade and Hughes (1999) Perception
  • Some of Nicholas Wade's art prints can be seen at
  • Perceptual portraits of figures in the history of the neurosciences can be seen at

Research Interests

Research Grouping - Language, Cognition and Perception

Perception provides the pivotal focus for my research, with particular emphasis on vision.

This is expressed in experimental studies of motion perception, and the theories that address it. A model which combines perception and action has been developed with Prof. M. Swanston (Abertay University Dundee). It has been applied to the practical problems of endoscopic surgery, and collaboration with surgeons at Ninewells Hospital is in progress. Perception is one of the oldest areas of enquiry, and my interests in its history have grown of late, as is evident from the publications listed below.

My initial interests were concerned with the history of binocular vision, but they have extended to vision generally and to other senses, too. The senses work together to provide a coherent representation of the external world, and the studies of one sense have often stimulated investigations into others. As an example, I have been examining the interplay between experiments on binocular vision and the impact they have had on those of binaural hearing.

For many years, the vestibular system was thought to be concerned with hearing, and as a sense it has provided a particular enigma; it is only relatively recently that it has been considered a separate sense or indeed a group of senses.

In historical terms, the practitioners of vision - artists - made many advances in the science of seeing. With the growth of science the two approaches to vision have tended to become divorced. In attempting to foster a closer kinship between visual science and visual art I have tried to use the graphical language of the artist to address issues that can be analysed by the scientist. This has resulted in collaborations with artists like Patrick Hughes and Calum Colvin.




Wade, N. J. (2018). The disparate histories of binocular vision and binaural hearing. Journal of the History of the Neurosciences, 27, 10-35.

O’Shea, R. P., Roeber, U., and Wade, N. J. (2017). On the discovery of monocular rivalry. i-Perception, Nov-Dec, pp. 1-12.
doi: 10.1177/2041669517743523

Wade, N. J. (2017). Silvanus P. Thompson on perception. Perception, 46, 1241-1244.
doi: 10.1177/0301006617710149

Wade, N. J. (2017). Seeing with two eyes and hearing with two ears. International Journal on Stereo & Immersive Media, 1, 4-25.

Wade, N. (2017). Visual Allusions: Pictures of Perception. London: Routledge.  Psychology Library Editions: Perception (Book 32). ISBN 1138205087 (Hbk)  9781138205086 (eBook)

Wade, N. (2016). Art and Illusionists. Heidelberg: Springer. ISBN 978-3-319-25227-8 ISBN 978-3-319-25229-2 (eBook)

Piccolino, M., and Wade, N.J. (2014). Galileo's Visions: piercing the spheres of the heavens by eye and mind.Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Wade, N.J., and Swanston, M.T. (2013). Visual Perception: An Introduction. 3rd edition. London: Psychology Press.

Meulders, M., Piccolino, M., and Wade, N. J. (Eds.) (2010). Giuseppe Moruzzi, Ritratti di uno scienziato, Portraits of a scientist. Pisa: Edizioni ETS. ISBN 9788846724797. Details can be found at:

Wade, N. (2007) Circles: Science, Sense and Symbol. Dundee: Dundee University Press. ISBN 9781845860196. Available from the author at:

Piccolino, M., and Wade, N. J. (2007) Insegne Ambiguë. Percorsi Obliqui tra Storia, Scienza e Arte, da Galileo a Magritte. Pisa: Edizioni ETS. ISBN 9788846717368
Insegne Ambigueacute

Wade, N. J., and Tatler, B. W. (2005) The Moving Tablet of the Eye: The Origins of Modern Eye Movement Research. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0198566166 (Hbk.), 0198566174 (Pbk.)

Wade, N. J. (2005) Perception and Illusion. Historical Perspectives. New York: Springer. Details can be found at:,11855,4-10126-22-34957016-0,00.html

Wade, N. J. (2003) (Ed.) Müller’s Elements of Physiology. 4 vols. Bristol: Thoemmes. Details can be found at

Wade, N. J. (2003) Destined for Distinguished Oblivion: The Scientific Vision of William Charles Wells (1757-1817). New York: Kluwer/Plenum.

Wade, N. J. (2002) (Ed.) Thomas Young's Lectures on Natural Philosophy and the Mechanical Arts (1807). Bristol: Thoemmes.

Wade, N.J., and Swanston, M. (2001) Visual Perception: An Introduction. 2nd edition. London: Psychology Press.

Wade, N. J., and Brozek, J. (2001) Purkinje's Vision. The Dawning of Neuroscience. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Wade, N. J. (2000) (Ed.) The Emergence of Neuroscience in the Nineteenth Century. 8 vols. London: Routledge/Thoemmes Press.

Wade, N. J. (2000) (Ed.) Helmholtz's Treatise on Physiological Optics. 3 vols. Bristol: Thoemmes Press.

Wade, N. J. (1998) A Natural History of Vision. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Wade, N. (1995) Psychologists in Word and Image. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. (Korean language edition translated by Sang-Hun Lee. Saegil Publishing Co. 1996.)

Wade, N.J., and Swanston, M. (1991) Visual Perception: An Introduction. London: Routledge. (Israeli edition translated by Bat'sheva Mance. Ach, Tel Aviv. 1994.)

Wade, N. (1990) Visual Allusions: Pictures of Perception. London: Lawrence Erlbaum. (Japanese language edition translated by Michiaki Kondo. Nakanishiya Shuppan, Tokyo. 1991.)

Wade, N.J. (1983) (Ed.) Brewster and Wheatstone on Vision. London: Academic Press.

Wade, N. (1982) The Art and Science of Visual Illusions. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul. (Japanese language edition translated by Michiaki Kondo. Seishinshobo, Tokyo. 1988.)

Articles and book chapters from 2000

Wade, N. J. (2017).  O estereoscópio e a câmara: uma união da visão e da arte (The stereoscope and the camera: a union of vision and art). In V. dos Reis and E. Tavares (Eds.) The Paradoxical Image: Francisco Afonso Chaves (1857-1926). Lisbon: Republica Portugesa. pp. 61-70 and 222-225.

Wade, N. J. (2017). Chapter 1. Early history of illusions. In A. Shapiro and D. Todorovic (Eds.) Oxford Compendium of Visual Illusions. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 3-37.

Wade, N. J. (2017). Chapter 113. Hidden images. In A. Shapiro and D. Todorovic (Eds.) Oxford Compendium of Visual Illusions. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 778-784.

Wade, N. J.  (2017). Seeing with two eyes and hearing with two ears. International Journal on Stereo & Immersive Media, 1, 4-25.

O’Shea, R. P., Roeber, U., and Wade, N. J. (2017). Gottfried Wilhelm Osann (1833, 1836) on simultaneous color contrast: Translation and commentary. i-Perception, 7, 1-11.

Wade, N. J., Todorovic, D., Phillips, D., and Lingelbach, B. (2017). Johann Joseph Oppel    (1855) on geometrical-optical illusions: A translation and commentary. i-Perception, 3, 1-18.

Wade, N. J. (2016). Faces and photography in 19th century visual science, Perception, 45, 1008-1035.

Wade, N. J.  (2016). Decades of discovery in vision. Perception, 45, 1091-1098.

O’Shea, R. P., Brini, S., and Wade, N. J. (2016). Ragona-Scinà (1847) on a novel method for, and new observation of, color contrast. i-Perception, 7(2), 1-13.

Wade, N. J.  (2016). Revealing portraits. Perception, 45, 607-611.

Wade, N. J. (2016) Capturing motion and depth before cinematography. Journal of the History of the Neurosciences, 25, 3-22.

Strasburger, H., and Wade, N.J. (2015). James Jurin (1684–1750): A pioneer of crowding research? Journal of Vision, 15(1): 9; doi:10.1167/15.1.9.

Wade, N. J., Rozhkova, G. I., Belopolsky, V. I., and Paramei, G. V. (2015). The vision of Alfred Yarbus. Perception, 44, 831-832.

Wade, N. J. (2015). How were eye movements recorded before Yarbus? Perception, 44, 851-883.

Verstraten, F. A. J., Niehorster, D., van de Grind, W.A. and Wade, N. J. (2015). Sigmund Exner’s (1887) “Einige Beobachtungen über Bewegungsnachbilder” (Some observations on movement aftereffects). An illustrated translation with commentary. i-Perception, 6(5), 1-18.

Wade, N.J. (2014). The first scientific selfie? Perception, 43, 1141-1144.

Wade, N.J. (2014). Geometrical optical illusionists. Perception, 43, 846-868.

Phillips, D. and Wade, N.J. (2014). The elusive Johann Joseph Oppel (1815-1894). Perception, 43, 869-872.

Wade, N.J., Thompson, P., and Morgan, M. (2014). The after-effect of Adolf Wohlgemuth's seen motion. Perception, 43, 229-234.

Wade, N.J. (2014). Eye-Conographs. Art and Perception Journal, 2, 3-10.

Wade, N.J. (2013). Faces in Perception. Perception, 42, 1103-1113.

Wade, N.J. and Koenderink, J. (2013). ECVP logos. Perception, 42, 1009-1012.

Wade, N.J. (2013). Deceiving the brain: pictures and visual perception. In S. Finger, D. Zaidel, F. Boller and J. Bogousslavsky (Eds.) The Fine Arts, Neurology and Neuroscience: History and Modern Perspectives. Oxford: Elsevier. pp. 115-134.

Wade, N.J., and Ngo, T. (2013). Early views on binocular rivalry. In S. Miller (Ed.) Constitution of Visual Consciousness: Lessons from Binocular Rivalry. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. pp. 77-108.

Wade, N.J. (2013). The experimental origins of cinema, stereo and their combination. PUBLIC, Art, Culture, Ideas, 24, 60-71.

Piccolino, M., and Wade, N.J. (2013). The frog's dancing master: science, séances and the transmission of myths. Journal of the History of the Neurosciences, 22, 79-95.

Wade, N.J. (2012). Artistic precursors of Gestalt principles. Gestalt Theory, 34, 329-348.

Wade, N.J. (2012). Carlo Matteucci e Giuseppe Moruzzi: un ricordo di due grandi scienziati italiani. Dimensione, 1-2, 74-76.

Wade, N.J. (2012). The ghost of Helioth and his stereoscope: the return of a phantom. Perception, 41, 1001-1002.

Wade, N.J. (2012). Wheatstone and the origins of moving stereoscopic images. Perception, 41, 901-924.

Piccolino, M., and Wade, N.J. (2012). La conquista della terza dimensione. Sapere, June, 80-82.

Wade, N.J. (2011). Carlo Matteucci, Giuseppe Moruzzi and stimulation of the senses: a visual appreciation. Archives Italiennes de Biologie, 149 (Supplement), 18-28.

Piccolino, M., and Wade, N.J. (2012) Carlo Matteucci (1811-1868), the "frogs pile", and the Risorgimento of electrophysiology. Cortex, 48, 645-646, and Cover illustration.

Wade, N.J. (2012). Jan Purkinje. Investigator of vision and pioneer of neuroscience (1787-1869). In A. Robinson (Ed.) The Scientists. An Epic of Discovery. London: Thames & Hudson. pp. 220-225.

Ono, H., and Wade, N.J. (2012). Two historical strands in studying visual direction. Japanese Psychological Research, 54, 71-88.

Wade, N.J., and Ono, H. (2012). Early studies of binocular and stereoscopic vision. Japanese Psychological Research, 54, 54-70.

Wade, N.J. (2012). Perception. In R. W. Rieber (Ed.) Encyclopedia of the History of Psychological Theories. New York: Springer. pp. 773-788.

Piccolino, M., and Wade, N.J. (2012). Il maestro di danza delle rane. Sapere, February, 68-71.

Piccolino, M., and Wade, N.J. (2012). L’occhio di Galileo. Come il cielo conquistò la terza dimensione. Le Stelle, 102, 50-55.

Wade, N.J. (2012). Scotland. In D. Baker (Ed.) The Oxford Handbook of the History of Psychology: Global Perspectives. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 436-469.

Piccolino, M., and Wade, N.J. (2011). Miracoli (islamici) della visione. Sapere, December, 68-70.

Ross, H. E., and Wade, N.J. (2011). Fechner’s elusive parallel law. Fechner’s legacy in Psychology: 150 years of Elementary Psychophysics. Leiden: Brill. pp. 25-38.

Wade, N.J. (2011). Eye contricks. i-Perception, 2, 486-501.

Piccolino, M., and Wade, N.J. (2011). Miracoli della visione. Sapere, August, 51-53

Wade, N.J. (2011). Feature detectors. Cortex, 47, 519-520, and Cover illustration.

Wade, N.J. (2011). Visual purple. Cortex, 47, 271-272, and Cover illustration.

Levi-Montalcini, R, Piccolino, M., Wade, N.J. (2011). Giuseppe Moruzzi: a tribute to a "e;formidable"e; scientist and a "formidable"e; man. Brain Research Reviews, 66, 256-269.

Wade, N., Nilius, B., and Piccolino, M. (2011). A quest in neurosciences: neuroportraits. Pflügers Archiv – European Journal of Physiology, 461, 591-592.

Wade, N. J., and Tatler, B. W. (2011) Origins and applications of eye movement research. In S. Liversedge, I. D. Gilchrist, and S. Everling (Eds.) Oxford Handbook on Eye Movements. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp 17-46.

Wade, N.J. (2011). Divided hemispheres. Cortex, 47, 633-634, and Cover illustration.

Piccolino, M., and Wade, N.J. (2011). Notturno romano. Sapere, April, pp. 80-82.

Piccolino, M., and Wade, N.J. (2011). Benedetto Castelli e le illusioni visive. Le Stelle, 94, 62-67.

Wade, N.J. (2011). Neurognostics answer. Science and sense. Journal of the History of the Neurosciences, 20, 74-79.

Wade, N.J. (2011). Neurognostics question. Science and sense. Journal of the History of the Neurosciences, 20, 26-28.

Wade, N.J., Ono, H., Mapp, A., and Lillakas, L. (2011). The singular vision of William Charles Wells (1757-1817). Journal of the History of the Neurosciences, 20, 1-15.

Wade, N.J. (2010). Richard Langton Gregory (1923-2010). American Psychologist,65, 924.

Wade, N.J. (2010). Pioneers of eye movement research. i-Perception, 1(2), 33-68.

Wade, N.J., and Tatler, B. W. (2010). Recognition and eye movements with partially hidden pictures of faces and cars in different orientationsi-Perception, 1(2), 103-121

Paramei, G., Bertamini, M., Bridgeman, B., and Wade, N.J. (2010). Eye movements: Spatial and temporal aspectsi-Perception, 1(2), 31-32.

Wade, N.J. (2010). Early history: from Galen to Golgi. In C. E. Schoonover (Ed.) Portraits of the Mind: Visualizing the Brain from Antiquity to the 21st Century. New York: Abrams. pp. 14-17.

Wade, N.J., and Finger, S. (2010). Phantom penis: historical dimensions. Journal of the History of the Neurosciences. 19, 299-312.

Wade, N.J. (2010). Granit's retina. Cortex, 46, 1070-1071 and Cover illustration.

Ross, H. E., and Wade, N.J. (2010). Fechner's elusive parallel law. Seeing and Perceiving, 23, 335-348.

Wade, N.J. (2010). Vision and the word. Perception, 39, 1157-1162.

Wade, N.J. (2010). Visual illusions. In The Corsini Encyclopedia of Psychology Science (4th ed.) New York: Wiley. pp. 1838-1840

Tatler, B. W., Wade, N. J., Kwan, H., Findlay, J. M., and Velichkovsky, B. M. (2010). Yarbus, eye movements, and vision. i-Perception, 1(1), 7-27.Available at:

Wade, N.J. (2010). Literal visions. International Journal of Arts & Technology, 3, 251-274.

Wade, N.J. (2010). Reid on perception. Perception, 39, 443-446.

Wade, N.J. (2010). The Darwins and Wells: From revolution to evolution. Journal of the History of the Neurosciences, 19, 85-104.

Wade, N.J. (2010). The science and art of the sixth sense. In F. Bacci and D. Melcher (Eds.) Art and the Senses. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 19-58.

Wade, N.J., Campbell, R. N., Ross, H. E., and Lingelbach, B. (2010). Perception, 39, 1-4.

Wade, N.J., and Piccolino, M. (2009). Seeing stars. Perception, 38, 1581-1584.

Wade, N.J. (2009). The search for a sixth sense: The cases for vestibular, muscle, and temperature senses. In D. Howes (Ed.) The Sixth Sense Reader. Oxford: Berg. pp. 55-86.

Ono, H., and Wade, N.J. (2009). The paradoxes of parallaxes. Perception, 38, 915-916.

Piccolino, M., and Wade, N.J. (2009). Galileo e i segni dei sensi. Sapere, August, 56-63.

Wade, N.J., and Tatler, B.W. (2009). Did Javal measure eye movements during reading? Journal of Eye Movement Research, 2(5):5, 1-7.

Wade, N.J. (2009). Natural magicians. Perception, 38, 633-636.

Ono, H., Wade, N.J., and Lillakas, L. (2009). Binocular vision: defining the historical directions. Perception, 38, 492-507.

Wade, N.J. (2009). Galileo's vision. Cortex, 45, 793-794 and Cover illustration.

Wade, N.J. (2009). Hartline's limulus. Cortex, 45, 695-696 and Cover illustration.

Wade, N.J. (2009). Berkeley's confused vision. Perception, 38, 475-478.

Wade, N.J. (2009). Berkeley's Essay. Perception, 38, 317-320.

Wade, N.J. (2009). Beyond body experiences: phantom limbs, pain and the locus of sensation. Cortex, 45, 243-255.

Wade, N.J. (2009). Sensory and perceptual disorders. In F. Boller, S. Finger, and K. Tyler (Eds.) Handbook of Clinical Neurology. Vol. 95. History of Neurology. 3rd series. Edinburgh: Elsevier. pp. 489-500.

Wade, N.J. (2009). Allusions to visual representation. In M. Skov and O. Vartanian (Eds.) Neuroaesthetics. Amityville NY: Baywood Publishing. pp. 171-220.

Wade, N. (2009). Scientists and artists as natural magicians. In Natural Magic. Edinburgh: Royal Scottish Academy, pp. 6.

Tatler, B.W., Wade, N.J., and Kaulard, K. (2008). Examining art: dissociating pattern and perceptual influences on oculomotor behaviour. In B. Pinna (Ed.) Art and Perception. Towards a Visual Science of Art. Part 1. Leiden: Brill. pp. 249-268.

Wade, N.J. (2008). Artful visions. In B. Pinna (Ed.) Art and Perception. Towards a Visual Science of Art. Part 1. Leiden: Brill. pp. 111-137.

Wade, N.J. (2008). Blinking Sam Johnson's perception. Perception, 37, 1779-1782.

Wade, N.J. (2008). Visual purple (Sehpurpur). Perception, 37, 1617-1620.

Wade, N.J., and Ziefle, M. (2008). The surface and deep structure of the waterfall illusion. Psychological Research, 72, 593-600.

Piccolino, M., and Wade, N.J. (2008). Galileo Galilei's vision of the senses. Trends in the Neurosciences, 31, 585-590.

Wade, N. J. (2008) Visual red (Sehrot). Perception, 37, 1467-1470.

Wade, N. J. (2008). Windows on the world. Daylight & Architecture, 7, 30-35.

Piccolino, M., and Wade, N.J. (2008). Galileo’s eye: a new vision of the senses in the work of Galileo Galilei. Perception, 37, 1312-1340.

Wade, N.J. (2008). The Thatcherisation of faces. Perception, 37, 807-810.

Wade, N.J. (2008). Chevalier John Taylor, ophthalmiater. Perception, 37, 969-972.

Wade, N.J., and Deutsch, D. (2008). Binaural hearing before and after the stethophone. Acoustics Today, 4, July, 16-27.

Wade, N.J. (2008). Cajal’s retina. Cortex, 44, 227-228 and Cover illustration.

Wade, N.J. (2008). Snellen’s letters. Perception, 37, 167-170.

Wade, N.J. (2008). Tartuferi’s retina. Cortex, 44, 105-106 and Cover illustration.

Wade, N. J. (2007) Alzheimer’s memory. Perception, 36, 1111-1114.

Wade, N.J. (2008). Natural historians. Perception, 37, 479-482.

Ono, H., Lillakas, L., and Wade, N. J. (2007). Seeing double and depth with Wheatstone’s stereograms. Perception, 36, 1611-1623.

Tatler, B. W., Wade, N. J., and Kaulard, K. (2007). Examining art: dissociating pattern and perceptual influences on oculomotor behaviour. Spatial Vision, 21, 165-184.

Wade, N. J. (2007). Artful visions. Spatial Vision, 21, 27-53.

Wade, N. J. (2007). The vision of William Porterfield. In H. Whitaker, C.U.M. Smith, and S. Finger (Eds.) Brain, Mind, and Medicine: Essays in 18th Century Neuroscience. New York: Springer. pp. 163-176.

Wade, N. J. (2007). Galileo and the senses: vision and the art of deception. Galilæana, 4, 259-288.

Wade, N. J. (2007) Image, eye and retina. Journal of the Optical Society of America A. 24, 1229-1249.

Wade, N. J. (2007). The stereoscopic art of Ludwig Wilding. Perception, 36, 479-482.

Wade, N.J. (2008). Vision and visualization. Journal of the History of the Neurosciences, 17, 273-293.

Wade, N. J. (2007). Synintryck, konst och illusioner. In B. Lindberg (Ed.) Sinnen, Signaler och Tolkningar av Verkligheten. Göteborg: KVVS. pp. 61-74.

Wade, N. J. (2007). Scanning the seen: vision and the origins of eye movement research. In R. P. G. van Gompel, M. H, Fischer, W. S., Murray, & R. L. Hill (Eds.). Eye Movements: A Window on Mind and Brain. Oxford: Elsevier. pp. 31-61.

Wade, N. J., Sakurai, K., and Gyoba, J. (2007). Whither Wundt? Perception, 36, 163-166.

Wade, N. J., and Gregory, R. L. (2006). Molyneux's answer II. Perception, 35, 1579-1582.

Wade, N. J., and Gregory, R. L. (2006). Molyneux's answer I. Perception, 35, 1437-1440.

Piccolino, M., and Wade, N. J. (2006). Flagging early examples of ambiguity. II. Perception, 35, 1003-1006.

Piccolino, M., and Wade, N. J. (2006). Flagging early examples of ambiguity. I. Perception, 35, 861-864.

Wade, N. J. (2006). Perception - the pursuit of illusion. In Psychological Concepts: An International Historical Perspective. K. Pawlik and G. d’Ydewalle (Eds.) Hove, East Sussex: Psychology Press. Pp. 271-298.

Wade, N. J. (2006). Perceptual portraits. In F. Clifford Rose (Ed.) Neurobiology of Painting. San Diego: Elsevier. pp. 17-38.

Melcher, D., and Wade, N. J. (2006). Cave art interpretation. II. Perception, 35, 719-722.

Wade, N. J., and Melcher, D. (2006). Cave art interpretation. I. Perception, 35, 577-580.

Ono, H., and Wade, N. J. (2006). Depth and motion perception produced by motion parallax. Teaching of Psychology, 33, 199-202.

Wade, N. J., and Piccolino, M. (2006). Nobel stains. Perception, 35, 1-8.

Wade, N. J., Ono, H., and Mapp, A. (2006) The lost direction in binocular vision: The neglected signs posted by Wells, Towne, and LeConte. Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences, 42, 61-86.

Wade, N., Wade, C., Wilding, L, Wilding, I, Kiwus, W., and Kiwus, I. (2005). Interactive art and sciencePerception, 34, 1295-1300.

Ono, H., and Wade, N. J. (2005). Depth and motion in historical descriptions of motion parallax. Perception, 34, 1263-1273.

Wade, N. J. (2005). Vision and the dimensions of nerve fibers. Journal of the History of the Neurosciences, 14, 281-294.

Wade, N. J. (2005). Sound and sight: acoustic figures and visual phenomena. Perception, 34, 1275-1290.

Wade, N. J., and Ono, H. (2005). From dichoptic to dichotic: historical contrasts between binocular vision and binaural hearingPerception, 34, 645-668.

Wade, N. J., and Nekes, W. (2005). The two faces of Rex Whistler (1905-1944). Perception, 34, 639-644.

Wade, N. J. (2005). Accentuating the negative: Tom Wedgwood (1771-1805), perception and photography. Perception, 34, 513-520.

Wade, N. J. (2005). The original spin doctors - the meeting of perception and insanity. Perception, 34, 253-260.

Wade, N. J., Norrsell, U., and Presly, A. (2005). Cox’s chair: “a moral and a medical mean in the treatment of maniacs”. History of Psychiatry, 16, 73-88.

Wade, N. J. (2005). The persisting vision of David Hartley (1705-1757). Perception, 34, 1-6.

Wade, N. J. (2005). Wade, N. J. (2005). Medical societies and insanity in late-eighteenth century London: The fight between Andrew Marshal and John Hunter. Journal of the History of the Neurosciences, 14, 11-15.

Omar, A. M., Wade, N. J., Brown, S. I., and Cushieri, A. (2005). Assessing the benefits of ‘gaze down’ display location in complex tasks. Surgical Endoscopy, 19, 105-108.

Wade, N. J. (2004). Medical memorials. William Charles Wells (1757-1817). Journal of Medical Biography, 12, 214.

Wade, N. J. (2004). Toying with science. Perception, 33, 1025-1032.

Wade, N. J. (2004). Visual neuroscience before the neuron. Perception, 33, 869-889.

Wade, N. J. (2004). Joseph Priestley (1733-1804). Perception, 33, 509-512.

Ono, H. Lillakas, L., Ujike, H., Wade, N. (2004). On the definition of motion parallax. Vision, 16, 83-92.

Wade, N. J. (2004). Philosophical instruments and toys: Optical devices extending the art of seeingJournal of the History of the Neurosciences, 13, 102-124.

Wade, N. J. (2004). Good figures. Perception, 33, 127-134.

Wade, N. J. (2003). Translation and recognition. Perception, 33, 1-10.

Wade, N. J., and Heller, D. (2003). Visual motion illusions, eye movements, and the search for objectivityJournal of the History of the Neurosciences, 12, 376-395.

Wade, N. J. (2003). Movements in art: from Rosso to RileyPerception, 32, 1029-1036.

Wade, N. J., Tatler, B. W., and Heller, D. (2003). Dodge-ing the issue: Dodge, Javal, Hering, and the measurement of saccades in eye movement researchPerception, 32, 793-804.

Wade, N. J., Bro┼żek, J., and Hoskovec, J. (2003). Images of Purkinje's vision. History & Philosophy of Psychology, 4 (2), 1-9.

Wade, N. J. (2003). The legacy of phantom limbs. Perception, 32, 517-524.

Wade, N. J., and Finger, S. (2003). William Porterfield (ca. 1696-1771) and his phantom limb: An overlooked first self-report by a man of medicine. Neurosurgery, 52, 1196-1199.

Wade, N. J. (2003). The Chimenti controversy. Perception, 32, 185-200.

Tatler B. W., and Wade N. J. (2003) On nystagmus, saccades, and fixations. Perception, 32, 167-184.


Wade, N. J., Kovács, G., and Vidnyánsky, Z. (2003). Inverted faces. Perception, 32, 1-6.


Wade, N. J. (2003). Visual illusions. In The Concise Corsini Encyclopedia of Psychology and Behavioral Science New York: Wiley.

Wade, N. J. (2003). The search for a sixth sense: The cases for vestibular, muscle, and temperature senses. Journal of the History of the Neurosciences, 12, 175-202.

Wade, N. J., and Hughes, P. (2002). Perceptual pilgrimages. Perception, 31, 1159-1164.

Finger, S., and Wade, N. J. (2002). The neuroscience of Helmholtz and the theories of Johannes Müller. Part 2. Sensation and perceptionJournal of the History of the Neurosciences, 11, 234-254.

Finger, S., and Wade, N. J. (2002). The neuroscience of Helmholtz and the theories of Johannes Müller. Part 1. Nerve cell structure, vitalism, and the nerve impulseJournal of the History of the Neurosciences, 11, 136-155.

Shimono, K., and Wade, N. J. (2002) Monocular alignment in different depth planes. Vision Research, 42, 1127-1135.

Wade, N. J. (2002). Erasmus Darwin (1731-1802). Perception, 31, 643-650.

Wade, N. J. (2002). Charles Wheatstone (1802-1875). Perception, 31, 265-272.

Ono, H., Wade, N. J., and Lillakas, L. (2002) The pursuit of Leonardo’s constraint. Perception, 31, 83-102.

Wade, N. J., and Swanston, M. T. (2001). Helmholtz on golf. Perception, 30, 1407-1410.

Wade, N. J., and Finger, S. (2001). The eye as an optical instrument. From camera obscura to Helmholtz's perspective. Perception, 30, 1157-1177

Wade, N. J. (2001). The Bains of Psychology. Perception, 30, 777-783.

Hofmeister, J., Frank, T., Cushieri, A., and Wade, N. J. (2001). Perceptual aspects of two-dimensional and stereoscopic display techniques in endoscopic surgery: Review and current problems. Seminars in Laparoscopic Surgery, 8, 12-24.

Feresin, C., Wade, N. J., and Swanston, M. T. (2001) Monocularity and the motion aftereffect. Atti della Fondazione Giogio Ronchi, 56, 45-54.

Wade, N. J., Ono, H., and Lillakas, L. (2001) Leonardo da Vinci's struggles with representations of reality. Leonardo, 34, 231-235.

Wade, N. J. (2001) Abolition of the senses. Brain and Behavioural Science, 24, 243-244.

Wade, N. J. (2001) Websights. Perception, 30, 261-262.

Wade, N. J. (2001). Visual illusions. In The Corsini Encyclopedia of Psychology and Behavioral Science (3rd ed., Vol. 4, pp. 1742-1744). New York: Wiley.

Wade, N. J., and Bruce, V. (2001) Surveying the seen: 100 years of British vision. British Journal of Psychology, 92, 79-112.

Wade, N. J. (2000) William Charles Wells (1757-1817) and vestibular research before Purkinje and Flourens. Journal of Vestibular Research, 10, 127-137.

Wade, N. J. (2000) An upright man. Perception, 29, 253-257.

Wade, N. J. (2000) Jean Théophile Desaguliers (1683-1744) and eighteenth century vision research. British Journal of Psychology, 91, 275-285.

Wade, N. J. (2000) Porterfield and Wells on the motions of our eyesPerception, 29, 221-239.

Editorial Commitments

Editorial Board, Perception
Editorial Board, Journal of the History of the Neurosciences