Qualitative Research Methods
I teach Social Psychology (especially topics concerning group processes and intergroup behaviour) on the undergraduate programme. On the postgraduate MSc programme I teach a module on Qualitative Research Methods.
After an Undergraduate degree in Experimental Psychology and an MPhil in Criminology I did my PhD in Social Psychology. I had a couple of years as a Research Assistant in Bristol and then came to Dundee in 1989. I used to be an Editor (with Prof Karen Douglas, Kent) of the British Journal of Social Psychology (2014-2016). Please do visit the journal here.
I'm interested in group behaviour and how our identities are based upon our group memberships. Some of the research I pursue is experimental. However in other research I have looked at the construction of group identity and how this may be involved in the organisation of group behaviour. Typically this work has involved the analysis of qualitative materials - e.g., speeches. In much of this work I have collaborated with Steve Reicher at St Andrews (see for example Reicher, S. & Hopkins, N., 2001 'Self and Nation', London: Sage). I've also worked quite a lot with my partner - Vered. Now working in the area of drug policy and violence against women, her PhD (in Politics) was in the field of Muslims' political organisation and action in the UK. Some of her data lent themselves to a social psychological analysis and we've worked on other data together too.
I also have longstanding links with social psychologists in India and have been involved in a number of teaching and research skills training projects based at the University of Allahabad. More recently, we have collaborated on an ESRC-funded project looking at the social psychology of collective participation in the Magh Mela - a huge Hindu festival that takes place each year at Allahabad, north India. Although this project has finished we are still writing papers from it (a mix of experimental, survey, and interview/ethnographic). This work was also featured in the Feb (2014) issue of National Geographic Magazine (Karma of the Crowd).
As well as publishing in academic journals, some of my research concerning identity has featured in various reports. One report was commissioned as part of the UK Government’s Foresight project 'Future Identities: Changing identities in the UK – the next 10 years.' Foresight is headed by the Government Chief Scientific Adviser, who reports directly to the Prime Minister and Cabinet. It is a part of the Government Office for Science within the Department for Business, Innovation & Skills. - See more at: http://www.bis.gov.uk/foresight/our-work/policy-futures/identity. Our report ( Reicher & Hopkins, 2013) is entitled ‘DR11: How will issues of power, conflict, and prejudice and discrimination impact upon notions of identity?’ and can be found at: http://www.bis.gov.uk/assets/foresight/docs/identity/13-512-power-conflict-prejudice-discrimination-impact-identity.pdf.
Another report was commissioned by the Equality and Human Rights Commission: Reicher, McCrone & Hopkins (2012) Equality and Human Rights Commission Research report 62 ‘A strong, fair and inclusive national identity’: A viewpoint on the Scottish Government’s Outcome 13. It can be found at: http://www.equalityhumanrights.com/uploaded_files/research/national_identity_viewpoint_research_report_62.pdf.
'Framing a ‘social problem’: Emotion in anti-abortion activists’ depiction of the abortion debate' British Journal of Social Psychology. DOI:
'Social identity and health at mass gatherings' European Journal of Social Psychology, vol. 47, no. 7, pp. 867-877. DOI:
Help that helps: Exploring strategic motivations in intergroup helping transactions. in EV Leeuwen & H Zagefka (eds), Intergroup Helping. Switzerland, pp. 159-181. DOI:
'The nation and the family: the impact of national identification and perceived importance of family values on homophobic attitudes in Lithuania and Scotland' Sex Roles, vol. 75, no. 9, pp. 448-458. DOI:
'Perception, Action and the Social Dynamics of the Variable Self' Psychological Inquiry, vol. 27, no. 4, pp. 341-347. DOI:
'From theorising radicalisation to surveillance practices: Muslims in the cross hairs of scrutiny' Political Psychology, vol. 37, no. 5, 12284, pp. 597-612. DOI:
'The psychology of health and well-being in mass gatherings: a review and a research agenda' Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 49-57. DOI:
'Adding a psychological dimension to mass gatherings medicine' International Journal of Infectious Diseases, vol. 47, pp. 112-116. DOI:
'Explaining effervescence: investigating the relationship between shared social identity and positive experience in crowds' Cognition & Emotion, vol. 30, no. 1, pp. 20-32. DOI:
'Psychology and culture: Back to the future?' Psychological Studies, vol. 60, no. 4, pp. 384-387. DOI:
'Everyday citizenship: identity claims and their reception' Journal of Social and Political Psychology, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 84-106. DOI:
''Flying while Muslim': citizenship and misrecognition in the airport' Journal of Social and Political Psychology, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 148-170. DOI:
'Shared identity predicts enhanced health at a mass gathering' Group Processes and Intergroup Relations, vol. 18, no. 4, pp. 504-522. DOI:
'How collective participation impacts social identity: a longitudinal study from India' Political Psychology, vol. 37, no. 3, pp. 309-325. DOI:
'Attention mediates the effect of context-relevant social meaning on prospective duration judgments' Timing and Time Perception, vol. 3, no. 3-4, pp. 189-200. DOI:
'The social psychology of citizenship, participation and social exclusion: introduction to the special thematic section' Journal of Social and Political Psychology, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 1-19. DOI:
'The social psychology of citizenship: engagement with citizenship studies and future research' Journal of Social and Political Psychology, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 192-210. DOI:
Social identity and group behaviour: A social psychological contribution to the social sciences. in G Misra (ed.), Psychology & Psychoanalysis. vol. XIII, Part3, History of Science, Philosophy and Culture in Indian Civilization.
Being together at the Magh Mela: The social psychology of crowds and collectivity. in A Terry & T Gale (eds), Sacred Mobilities: Journeys of Belief and Belonging. Routledge, Farnham, Surrey, England.
Identity and Identification. in JD Wright (ed.), The International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences. 2nd edition edn, Elsevier, pp. 526-531. DOI:
'Cold comfort at the Magh Mela: social identity processes and physical hardship' British Journal of Social Psychology, vol. 53, no. 4, pp. 675-690. DOI:
'Efficacy and well-being in rural north India: The role of social identification with a large-scale community identity' European Journal of Social Psychology, vol. 44, no. 7, pp. 787-798. DOI:
'Help-seeking helps: help-seeking and group image' Small Group Research, vol. 45, no. 1, pp. 89-113. DOI:
'A calming cacophony: social identity can shape the experience of loud noise' Journal of Environmental Psychology, vol. 36, pp. 87-95. DOI:
'Hijab, visibility and the performance of identity' European Journal of Social Psychology, vol. 43, no. 5, pp. 438-447. DOI:
'Turning the analytic gaze on “us”: the role of authorities in the alienation of minorities' European Psychologist, vol. 18, no. 4, pp. 245-252. DOI:
'Social Meaning of Ambiguous Sounds Influences Retrospective Duration Judgments' Psychological Science, vol. 24, no. 6, pp. 1060-1062. DOI:
'I know who I am, but who do they think I am? Muslim perspectives on encounters with airport authorities' Ethnic and Racial Studies, vol. 36, no. 6, pp. 1090-1108. DOI:
'Thanks, but no thanks: women's avoidance of help-seeking in the context of a dependency-related stereotype' Psychology of Women Quarterly, vol. 36, no. 4, pp. 423-431. DOI:
'Participation in mass gatherings can benefit well-being: longitudinal and control data from a north Indian hindu pilgrimage event' PLo S ONE, vol. 7, no. 10, pp. e47291. DOI:
'Meta-stereotypes, social image and help seeking: dependency-related meta-stereotypes reduce help-seeking behaviour' Journal of Community & Applied Social Psychology, vol. 23, no. 5, pp. 363-372. DOI:
Divided by a Common Language? conceptualizing identity, discrimination, and alienation. in KJ Jonas & TA Morton (eds), Restoring Civil Societies: The Psychology of Intervention and Engagement Following Crisis. pp. 222-236. DOI:
'The impact of adopting ethnic or civic conceptions of national belonging for others' treatment' Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, vol. 37, no. 12, pp. 1599-1610. DOI:
'Dual identities and their recognition: minority group members' perspectives' Political Psychology, vol. 32, no. 2, pp. 251-270. DOI:
'Religion and social capital: identity matters' Journal of Community & Applied Social Psychology, vol. 21, no. 6, pp. 528-540. DOI:
'Everyday citizenship: identity and recognition' Journal of Community & Applied Social Psychology, vol. 21, no. 3, pp. 215-227. DOI:
A Social Psychology of Category Construction. in N Bozatzis & T Dragonas (eds), The Discursive Turn in Social Psychology., 2, World Share Books, Taos Institute Publications , Athens, pp. 51-62.
'Reconceptualizing 'extremism' and 'moderation': from categories of analysis to categories of practice in the construction of collective identity' British Journal of Social Psychology, vol. 48, no. 1, pp. 99-113. DOI:
Identity matters: On the importance of Scottish identity for Scottish society. in F Bechhofer & D Mc Crone (eds), National Identity, Nationalism and Constitutional Change. Palgrave Macmillan, pp. 17-40. DOI:
'The role of social categorization and identity threat in the perception of migrants' Journal of Community & Applied Social Psychology, vol. 19, no. 6, pp. 515-520. DOI:
'Identity, practice and dialogue' Journal of Community & Applied Social Psychology, vol. 18, no. 4, pp. 363-368. DOI:
'Minority understandings of the dynamics to intergroup contact encounters: British Muslims' (sometimes ambivalent) experiences of representing their group to others' South African Journal of Psychology, vol. 37, no. 4, pp. 679-701.
'Helping to improve the group stereotype' Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, vol. 33, no. 6, pp. 776-788. DOI:
'Space, place, and identity: issues for political psychology' Political Psychology, vol. 27, no. 2, pp. 173-185. DOI:
'Young people's deliberations on geographic mobility: Identity and cross-border relocation' Political Psychology, vol. 27, no. 2, pp. 227-245. DOI:
'Social identity and spatial behaviour: The relationship between national category salience, the sense of home, and labour mobility across national boundaries' Political Psychology, vol. 27, no. 2, pp. 247-263. DOI:
'VI. Identity and social change: Contextualizing agency' Feminism & Psychology, vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 52-57. DOI:
'Saving Bulgaria's Jews: An analysis of social identity and the mobilisation of social solidarity' European Journal of Social Psychology, vol. 36, no. 1, pp. 49-72. DOI:
'Minority group members' theories of intergroup contact: a case study of British Muslims' conceptualizations of Islamophobia and social change' British Journal of Social Psychology, vol. 45, no. 2, pp. 245-264. DOI:
'Social identity and the dynamics of leadership: Leaders and followers as collaborative agents in the transformation of social reality' Leadership Quarterly, vol. 16, no. 4, pp. 547-568. DOI:
'Visualising abortion: emotion discourse and fetal imagery in a contemporary abortion debate' Social Science and Medicine, vol. 61, no. 2, pp. 393-403. DOI:
'The antecedents of identification: A rhetorical analysis of British Muslim activists' constructions of community and identity' British Journal of Social Psychology, vol. 43, no. 1, pp. 41-57. DOI:
'Identity construction and British Muslims' political activity: Beyond rational actor theory' British Journal of Social Psychology, vol. 43, no. 3, pp. 339-356. DOI:
'Citizenship, participation and identity construction: Political mobilization amongst British Muslims' Psychologica Belgica, vol. 43, no. 1-2, pp. 33-54.
''Representing' British Muslims: the strategic dimension to identity construction' Ethnic and Racial Studies, vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 288-309. DOI:
'Categorizing the neighbors: Identity, distance, and stereotyping' Social Psychology Quarterly, vol. 64, no. 3, pp. 239-252.
'Group variability judgments: Investigating the context-dependence of stereotypicality and dispersal judgments' British Journal of Social Psychology, vol. 40, no. 3, pp. 455-470. DOI:
'Psychology and the end of history: A critique and a proposal for the psychology of social categorization' Political Psychology, vol. 22, no. 2, pp. 383-407. DOI:
'Intergroup differentiation: Stereotyping as a function of status hierarchy' Journal of Social Psychology, vol. 141, no. 3, pp. 323-333. DOI:
'National identity: Pride and prejudice?' British Journal of Social Psychology, vol. 40, no. 2, pp. 183-186. DOI:
'Children's gender categorization: An investigation of automatic processing' British Journal of Developmental Psychology, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 97-102. DOI:
'The role of the 'other' in national identity: exploring the context-dependence of the national ingroup stereotype' Journal of Community & Applied Social Psychology, vol. 9, no. 5, pp. 321-338. DOI:
'On the context dependence of national stereotypes: some Scottish data' British Journal of Social Psychology, vol. 36, no. 4, pp. 553-563. DOI:
'On the parallels between social cognition and the 'new racism'' British Journal of Social Psychology, vol. 36, no. 3, pp. 305-329. DOI:
'Social movement rhetoric and the social psychology of collective action: a case study of anti-abortion mobilization' Human Relations, vol. 50, no. 3, pp. 261-286. DOI:
'Comparative identity and evaluation of socio-political change: perceptions of the European Community as a function of the salience of regional identities' European Journal of Social Psychology, vol. 27, no. 1, pp. 97-113. DOI:
'Constructing women's psychological health in anti-abortion rhetoric' Sociological Review, vol. 44, no. 3, pp. 539-564. DOI:
'Seeking influence through characterizing self-categories: an analysis of anti-abortionist rhetoric' British Journal of Social Psychology, vol. 35, no. 3, pp. 297-311. DOI:
'Self-category constructions in political rhetoric: An analysis of Thatcher's and Kinnock's speeches concerning the British miners' strike (1984-5)' European Journal of Social Psychology, vol. 26, no. 3, pp. 353-371. DOI:
'Peer group processes and adolescent health-related behavior: more than 'peer group pressure'?' Journal of Community & Applied Social Psychology, vol. 4, no. 5, pp. 329-345. DOI:
'Young people arguing and thinking about the police: qualitative data concerning the categorization of the police in a police youth contact program' Human Relations, vol. 47, no. 11, pp. 1409-1432. DOI:
'School pupils perceptions of the police that visit schools: not all police are 'pigs'' Journal of Community & Applied Social Psychology, vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 189-207. DOI:
'Integrating sociological and psychological perspectives on informal care: reply to Ungerson' Journal of Community & Applied Social Psychology, vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 225-23. DOI:
'Police-Schools liaison and young people’s image of the police: an intervention evaluation' British Journal of Psychology, vol. 83, no. 2, pp. 203-220. DOI:
'Cognitive models of stereotype change: 1. generalization and subtyping in young peoples views of the police' European Journal of Social Psychology, vol. 22, no. 3, pp. 219-234. DOI:
'The crisis in modern social psychology: and how to end It. by Ian Parker' British Journal of Social Psychology, vol. 29, no. 3, pp. 283-285. DOI: