Jacob George

+44 (0)1382 383204
Professor of Cardiovascular Medicine & Therapeutics / R&D Director NHS Tayside



1. R&D Director, NHS Tayside

2. Professor of Cardiovascular Medicine and Therapeutics, School of Medicine, University of Dundee

3. Honorary Consultant Physician, Cardiovascular Medicine

4. Voting Member, Scottish Medicines Consortium, Healthcare Improvement Scotland (HIS)


  1. Aug 2010-Feb2011 - Locum Consultant in Acute Medicine/ Hon. Senior Lecturer, Clinical Pharmacology, University of Dundee/NHS Tayside
  2. Jun 2006 – Jul 2010 - Clinical Lecturer, Clinical Pharmacology Therapeutics/General Internal Medicine, Ninewells Hospital and Medical School, University of Dundee
  3. Dec 2003-May 2006 - British Heart Foundation Research Fellow at Ninewells Hospital and Medical School, University of Dundee


Professor George’s research interests are focused on three main areas: Firstly, the vascular biology of urate, xanthine oxidase and oxidative stress. Particularly focusing on therapeutic strategies in xanthine oxidase inhibition in various pathophysiological states. Secondly, investigating the role of biomarkers in Cardiovascular Disease and thirdly, Cardiovascular Risk Management.


Media coverage of e-cigarette study:

BBC - E-cigarettes vs tobacco health risks study launched

Media coverage of salt content in soluble drugs:

BMJ - High salt levels in common medicines put patients at increased risk of cardiovascular events

The Guardian - High sodium levels in drugs 'putting patients at risk'

The Scotsman - Salt in common pills ‘raises heart attack risk’

Herald Scotland - Salt in everyday painkillers linked to premature death

The Australian - Drug salt content damaging health: study

BBC News - Salt in medicines 'poses a health risk'

Express - Salt in everyday painkillers boosts risk of heart attacks

Western Morning News - High salt content of everyday drugs is 'damaging health'

The Telegraph - Warning over stroke risk from soluble painkillers

Mail Online - Soluble versions of paracetamol, aspirin and ibuprofen put patients at 22% more risk of strokes

Drugs.com - Fizzy Drugs May Pose a High-Salt Danger, Study Suggests

Australian Doctor - Soluble drugs full of salt, study reveals

HNGN - Salt In Painkillers Increases Stroke Risk By 22 Percent, Study

Medical News Today - Effervescent medicines may contain harmful amounts of salt

Everyday Health - Salt Bombs May Be Hiding in Your Medicine Cabinet

Banbury Cake - Drug salt content 'damaging health'

International Business Health - Common Medicines Contain Alarming Levels of Salt, Increase Risk of Heart Attacks and Strokes

The Conversation - Sodium in medicines raises stroke and hypertension risk

Express and Star - Drug salt content 'damaging health'

HealCon - Salt in drugs raise heart attack risk - study

Health Medicine Network - High salt levels in common medicines put patients during increasing risk of cardiovascular events

Wopular - Salt In Medicines 'a Health Risk'

Rochdale Online - High salt levels in common medicines put patients at increased risk of cardiovascular events

UK News - Drug salt content 'damaging health'

TopNews - Soluble Painkillers High in Salt Pose Health Risk

News for Sctoland - Dundee University Experts Call for Salt Content on Medicine Labels

Tayfm - Call For Salt Labels On Medicines

Summit Medical Group - Fizzy Drugs May Pose a High-Salt Danger, Study Suggests

European Medicines Agency label change to Medicines


thetimesonline Salt risk of medicines



  1. 1st Year Lectures in Cardiovascular System block
  2. Lead Tutor for Clinical Pharmacology Year 2 Practice of Medicine module
  3. 2nd Year Pharmacology Lectures in Renal & Urology block
  4. 2nd Year Special Study Component (SSC) Supervisor
  5. 3rd Year Prescribing Lecture Elderly Medicine block
  6. 4th Year medical students’ Therapeutics Tutorials Tutor
  7. 4th Year Research Project Module Supervisor
  8. 5th (Final) Year Medicine block: Hypertension and Heart Failure Tutor


  1. Speaker at Hypertension and Its Management : Current Perspectives in Cardiac Care Course , NHS Tayside
  2. Module Lead- Management of CV Risk in Diabetes: Kuwait Dasman MSc programme
  3. Course Tutor in Clinical Pharmacology and Cardiology: Membership of the Royal College of Physicians (MRCP) Part 1
  4. Speaker at NES Education Programme for Pharmacists
  5. Speaker at Tayside ICH/GCP Day course


  1. Examiner for 3rd, 4th and final year medical student examinations
  2. MD University Thesis Monitoring Committee- University of Dundee
  3. MD/PhD Thesis Examiner (Internal and External) & Convenor
  4. MSc Cardiovascular Risk Module Examiner (Kuwait Dasman Diabetes Institute








Recent Publications (Past 2 years)

  • Barker E, Desmukh H, Levin D, George J. Effect of different antihypertensive drug classes on survival in unilateral and bilateral renal artery stenosis: a retrospective record-linkage study. J Hypertens. 2015 Jun (Epub ahead of print)-Senior Author
  • Sun Y, George J, Rocha S. Dose-dependent Effects of Allopurinol on Human Foreskin Fibroblast Cell and Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cell under Hypoxia. PLOS One 2015 Apr 1;10(4):e0123649. doi: 10.1371
  • Goudie A, Elder DE, Deshmukh H, Szwejkowski BR, Lang CC, George J. Effect of warfarin on survival in patients with concomitant left ventricular systolic dysfunction and pulmonary hypertension: a population cohort study. Eur J Heart Failure 2015 Jan;17(1):90-7 – Senior Author
  • George J, Mackle G, Manoharan A, Khan F, Struthers AD. High BNP levels in Rheumatoid Arthritis are related to inflammation but not to Left ventricular abnormalities: A prospective case-control study. International J Cardiology- 2014;172(1): Epub 2014 Jan 5.
  • George J, Majeed W, Mackenzie IS, MacDonald TM, Wei L. The Association of Cardiovascular Events with Sodium-Containing Effervescent, Dispersible and Soluble Medications; Nested Case-control Study. British Medical Journal (BMJ)- 2013 Nov 26;347:f6954. DOI: 10.1136/bmj.f6954 (Finalist- UK Research Paper of the Year)
  • Szwejkowski B, Gandy SJ, Rekhraj S, Houston JG, Lang CC, Morris AD, George J, Struthers AD. Allopurinol reduces Left ventricular mass in Patients with type 2 Diabetes and Left Ventricular Hypertrophy. J Am Coll Cardiol (JACC) 2013 Dec 17;62(24):2284-93
  • Beveridge LA, Ramage L, McMurdo MET, George J, Witham MD. Allopurinol use is associated with greater functional gains in older rehabilitation patients. Age Ageing 2013 May;42(3):400-4
  • Rekhraj S ,Gandy S , Szwejkowski B , Nadir MA , Noman A ,Houston JG , Lang CC , George J, Struthers AD. High Dose Allopurinol Reduces Left Ventricular Mass in Patients with Ischemic Heart Disease. J Am Coll Cardiol (JACC) 2013 Mar 5;61(9):926-32
  • Anderson W, Lipworth BJ, Rekhraj S, Struthers AD, George J. Left Ventricular Hypertrophy in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease without Hypoxaemia: The Elephant in the Room? Chest. 2013 Jan;143(1):91-7 –Senior Author
  • Struthers AD, George J .High B-Type Natriuretic Peptide Hypertensives at Target Blood Pressure: Potential Role of ?-Blockers to Reduce Their Elevated Risk. Hypertension. 2015 ;66(5):927-32
  • Wei L, Mackenzie IS, MacDonald TM, George J. Cardiovascular Risk associated with Sodium containing medicines. Expert Opinion on Drug Safety. 2014 Nov;13(11):1515-23
  • George J, Khan F, Struthers AD. The source of BNP in Rheumatoid Arthritis. Int J Cardiol. 2014 Jul 1;174(3):740
  • George J, Majeed W, Mackenzie IS, MacDonald TM, Wei L. Salt in effervescent and dispersible medications: Prescriber Beware (Editorial). Prescriber 2014; 25(7): 6-8
  • George J, Struthers AD, Lang CC. Modulation of the Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System in Heart Failure Curr Atherosclerosis Rep- 2014 Apr;16(4):403:1-9
  • Witham MD, George J. Clinical trial design for older people-time for a re-think. QJM. 2014 Jan;107(1):15-6