Raphael Heffron

+44 (0)1382 384530
Professor in Global Energy Law & Sustainability


Raphael Heffron is Professor for Global Energy Law & Sustainability at the Centre for Energy, Petroleum and Mineral Law and Policy at the University of Dundee. He is a graduate of both Oxford (MSc) and Cambridge (MPhil & PhD). His work is international and combines a mix of energy law, policy and economics. He has published over 120 publications of different types and his research has been cited over 700 times in the last three years. Professor Heffron’s research all has a principal focus on achieving a just transition to a low-carbon economy.

Raphael was elected to the Royal Society of Edinburgh Young Academy of Scotland in 2018. His research and teaching has been recognised by the award of a Jean Monnet Professorship in Energy & Natural Resources Law (2016-2019) by the European Commission. His teaching has also been recognised in the UK by becoming a Senior Fellow of the UK Higher Education Academy in 2018. In addition, Raphael is a Fellow of The Royal Society of Arts.

Raphael’s research has involved funding from UK national research councils (the ESRC and the EPSRC), the EU and currently through the European Commission Jean Monnet Professorship 2016-2019. He is a Research Associate at the national UK Energy Research Centre. He has given expert advice to the EU, UN, World Bank, and various international thinktanks. Raphael is on the Editorial Board of the International Energy Law Review, the Renewable Energy Law and Policy Review and is Consulting Editor of the Halsbury’s Laws of England volumes on Energy Law. Raphael is also co-editor of the forthcoming Oxford University Press Handbook for International Energy Law.

Raphael is currently the Co-Chair of the UK Energy Law and Policy Association; Visiting Professor in Energy Law at the International Hellenic University (Greece); an Associate Researcher at the Energy Policy Research Group at the University of Cambridge; and currently is a Visiting Professor at Paris-Dauphine University (Paris, France), Queen Mary University of London (UK); a Visiting Lecturer at the ESCP Business School (London and Paris); and a Visiting Senior Fellow at the Oxford Institute for Energy Studies.

Raphael read for his PhD at Trinity Hall, University of Cambridge. He is also a trained Barrister-at-Law and was called to the Bar in July 2007 in the Republic of Ireland. He holds degrees from the University of Cambridge (MPhil, PhD), the University of Oxford (Christ Church) (MSc) the University of St. Andrews (MLitt), and Trinity College Dublin (BA, MA).

Research and PhDs

Raphael's research interests are in energy, environmental and planning law and policy and sustainability issues. His research perspective is through law and economics and he focuses in particular on: energy infrastructure development, electricity markets, energy subsidies, energy liability, the EIA process, energy justice, sustainability and the just transition to a low-carbon economy.

Of importance is the aim to understand the legal challenges involved in planning for new energy infrastructure projects. Raphael’s research interests crosses the disciplines of planning law, public administration, project management, competition law, tort and strategy.

Funded research

Raphael’s research has involved funding from UK national research councils (the ESRC, and the EPSRC), the EU (in a Horizon 2020 project) and currently from the European Commission (for energy law) and the UKERC (for the Just Transition).

Research Projects of Professor Heffron

For my research projects see:

PhD Opportunities

Raphael is currently open to taking PhD research students – and see above for his research projects for ideas.

Professor Heffron is a Senior Fellow of the Higher Education Academy and the only energy law professor in the UK to achieve this status currently.

Currently his teaching covers:

  1. Energy Law (for undergraduates)
  2. Sustainability & Mining Law (for LLMs & MScs)
  3. Just Transition to a Low-Carbon Economy (for LLMs & MScs)
  4. Energy & Climate Science, Policy & Litigation (for LLMs & MScs)

PhD Examination

Professor Heffron has externally examined (9) PhDs at: the Universities of Cambridge (UK), Dundee (UK), Aberdeen, (UK) Southampton Solent (UK), Melbourne (Australia), and Anglia Ruskin (UK).

PhD Supervision

Professor Heffron is open to taking PhD students currently and on a broad range of topics – see his research areas for some ideas.

His current PhD students are:

  1. Year 3: Tedd Moye Mose – International Energy Law & Policy
  2. Year 3: Zengin Zinnure – Project Finance, Risk and Law in the Energy Sector
  3. Year 3: Mohammad Hazrati – Oil & Gas Development in the Just Transition
  4. Year 2: Amber Sharick – Green Finance Law and Policy
  5. Year 1: Ryan Bausch – CSR & Energy Law in Africa

Recently Completed/Graduated:

  1. Graduated 2018: Mohammad Alomari – Environmental Governance in the KSA
  2. Completed 2018: Macdonald Irowarisima – Mitigating Legal Risk in the Oil and Gas Sector in Nigeria



  • Cameron, P. D. and Heffron, R. J. (editors). 2016. (2nd Edition) Legal Aspects of EU Energy Regulation. Oxford University Press: Oxford, UK.
  • Heffron R.J., and Little G. (Eds). 2016. Delivering Energy Law and Policy in the EU and US: A Reader. Edinburgh University Press: UK. - Sold out of First Print run, on second print run.
  • Heffron. R. J. 2015. Energy Law. Roundhall, Sweet & Maxwell – Thomson Reuters: Dublin, Ireland
    - quotes from Book reviews: (1) ‘will be welcomed by students, lawyers and members of the judiciary alike for its clear and effective approach to the area’; (2) ‘it is suggested that it is likely that it will not be too long before there will be demands for a second edition.’; and (3)‘Dr Heffron offers a detailed account of energy law and policy. However, he does not stop at black-letter law but also provides a much-needed and thoughtful analysis of the potential areas of improvement.’
  • Heffron, R. J. 2015. Energy Law: An Introduction. Springer: Heidelberg, Germany.
    - Persian translation published 2017, Chinese translation (September 2017), Spanish and Arabic 2018); over 3500 downloads and hardcopies sold to-date (English language version)
  • Heffron. R. J. 2015. Deconstructing Energy Law and Policy: The Case of Nuclear Energy. Edinburgh University Press: Edinburgh, Scotland, UK.

Selected Publications Update


Book chapters

Multiple Book Chapters in Energy Law and Policy Texts

Selected Publications - Conference Proceedings, Other Reviews and Commentary Analysis

  • Heffron, R. (2016, Apr). Keeping the Lights On: Brexit poses potential benefits and challenges for the future of British energy policy. Angle Journal. Retrieved from http://anglejournal.com/article/2016-03-impact-of-a-brexit-on-the-uk-energy-sector/
  • Johnston, A., Heffron, R. J. and McCauley D. 2014. Rethinking the scope and necessity of energy subsidies in the United Kingdom. Energy Research & Social Science, 3, 1-4.
  • Heffron, R. J. 2013. Energy Subsidies and the Flawed Dominance of Economics in the UK Energy Sector. Cambridge University Science and Policy Exchange. Available: http://cuspe.org/publicationfiles/Winter2013/heffron.pdf.
  • Heffron, R. J. 2013. A Proposal for Reforming an Electricity Market for a Low-Carbon Economy. EU Energy Policy Blog. Available: http://www.energypolicyblog.com/.
  • Heffron, R. J., Allen, M. and McCauley, D. 2013. The Forgotten Law and Policy Issue: Nuclear Waste Management in Scotland. Edinburgh Law Review, 17 (3), 325-332.
  • Heffron, R. J., Johnston, A., McCauley, D. and Jenkins, K. 2013. Policy Delivery on Low Carbon Energy Generation Infrastructure in the UK: Conference Overview. Energy Policy, 61, 1367-1369.

Public Engagement

  • Senior Fellow Higher Education Academy
  • Royal Society of Edinburgh Young Academy of Scotland (elected 2018)
  • Senior Fellow of the Oxford Institute for Energy Studies
  • Associate Researcher, UK Energy Research Centre
  • Scientific Committee, European Federation of Energy Law Associations
  • Visiting Professor, Energy Law, Université Paris-Dauphine (Paris, France 2018)
  • Visiting Professor in Energy Law, International Hellenic University, Greece
  • Co-Chair, United Kingdom Energy Law and Policy Association
  • Associate Researcher of the Energy Policy Research Group, University of Cambridge
  • Associate Research Fellow, Centre for Integrated Energy Research, University of Leeds, UK
  • Policy Fellow, Policy Fellows Network, Centre for Science and Policy, University of Cambridge, UK
  • Research Fellow, International Energy Justice Council.

Activities since September 2015

  • January 2019 Energy Storage Conference, University of St. Andrews, UK
  • November 2018 Climate, Environmental & Energy Law Conference, Tapei, Taiwan
  • October 2018 Faculty Seminar, School of Law, University of Aberdeen, UK
  • September 2018 International Mining Law Conference, Jakarta, Indonesia
  • September 2018 Oil & Gas Regulator, 3-hour Presentation, Jakarta, Indonesia
  • September 2018 Mining Law Workshop, Malang, Indonesia
  • September 2018 DFDL (Law Firm), Presentation, Bangkok, Thailand
  • September 2018 DFDL (Law Firm), Presentation, Vientiane, Laos
  • World Energy Forum, Ordos, China (Keynote) (August 2018)
  • UKERC Annual Conference (Invited Speaker) (July 2018)
  • UKERC Annual STEM PhD Workshop (Invited Speaker) (July 2018)
  • Dundee 2nd Annual Energy Forum, UK (June 2018)
  • EFELA Meeting at the ECJ (Keynote), Luxembourg (June 2018)
  • UN Meeting – London, UK (June 2018)
  • 16th Annual Conference for Environmental Professionals: Law and the Environment. Faculty of Law, University College Cork, Ireland (April 2018)
  • ESCP MBA Energy Management Masters (ESCP Business School), Paris, France (April 2018)
  • Keynote Speaker: Expert workshop at the Qatar Foundation and the Hamad Bin Khalifa University (HBKU)(April 2018)
  • Keynote Speaker: Renewable Energy Futures – European Student Law Association Energy Law Conference (2 day conference) (March 2018)
  • Keynote Speaker: Climate Justice – Rovira i Virgili University (URV), Taragona, Catalan, Spain (2 day Conference) (January 2018)
  • Masters in Sustainable Development (Guest Lecturer) Department of Geography and Sustainable Development, University of St. Andrews. (November 2017))
  • ESCP MBA Executive Masters (ESCP Business School – London/Paris) London, UK (September 2017)
  • Keynote Speaker: Energy Justice & Africa – University of Essex, UK (2 day Conference) (July 2017)
  • International Energy Justice Retreat: Organiser, University of St. Andrews, UK (June 2017)
  • Invited Speaker: Energy Justice - OFGEM, London, UK (June 2017)
  • Invited Speaker: Energy & Brexit – EDF (Headoffice), UK (May 2017)
  • Invited Speaker: Nuclear & Brexit - Open, Birmingham & Buckingham Universities (May 2017)
  • Invited Speaker: Workshop on International Energy Law, Liverpool Hope University, UK (May 2017)
  • Invited Speaker: Dundee 40th Year Energy Law Celebration, University of Dundee (May 2017)
  • Scientific Committee, Session Chair and Speaker on Energy Justice, ERSS Conference, Spain (April 2017)
  • Invited Speaker, Liverpool Hope University UK (March 2017)
  • Judge of Spark Nuclear Energy Contest (March 2017)
  • Session Chair on ‘Energy Justice’ and Speaker, Energy Transitions Conference 2017, University of Eastern Finland, Finland (March 2017)
  • Invited Speaker & Panellist, Arctic Energy Resources, Energy Society, London School of Economics, UK (March 2017)
  • Law and CCS, Gateway Stakeholder Meeting, Queen Mary University of London (February 2017)
  • ESCP MBA Executive Masters (ESCP Business School – London/Paris), London, UK (February 2017)
  • Invited Speaker, UK CCS Research Centre, Imperial College, London, UK (January 2017)
  • Law and CCS, Gateway Project Review Meeting, European Commission, Brussels, Belgium (December 2016)
  • Invited Speaker: REMIT in operation in the UK – Italian Energy Law Association, Milan, Italy (November 2016)
  • Invited to Guest Lecturer: “Energy Subsidies” Masterclass, Department of Geography and Sustainable Development, University of St. Andrews (November 2016)
  • Invited to speak at the University of Cambridge at their Cambridge Centre for Environment, Energy, and Natural Resource Governance (CEENRG) on The Evolution of Energy Law (20 October 2016).
  • Professor Raphael Heffron interviewed by Materials World (The Institute of Materials, Minerals and Mining) on nuclear energy law and policy.
  • Energy justice: A conceptual review at the European Energy & Society Association (September 2016)
  • Winners & Losers after Paris COP21 at the Society of Legal Scholars (September 2016)
  • The Role of Energy Justice Across the Disciplines at UK Royal Geography Society (Aug/Sep 2016)
  • Lexis-Nexis “Embedded Generation Charges in the UK Electricity Sector.” – In Interview (August 2016)
  • PhD Examiner, University of Cambridge (July 2016)
  • The Impact of Climate Change on Theory Development for Energy & Environmental Law at All Souls College - University of Oxford (June/July 2016)
  • Invited Key-Note Speaker: Hungarian Energy Law Conference, Hungary (June 2016)
  • Invited Speaker – 12th Annual Conference for Environmental Professionals: Law and the Environment 2014. Faculty of Law, University College Cork (April 2016)
  • Invited Speaker – Career Roundtable: Where will legal knowledge get me in the energy sector, UK Energy Research Centre (April 2016)
  • PhD External Examiner – University of Aberdeen (March 2016)
  • Invited Speaker – Workshop on ‘Fukushima Five Years On’ Faculty of Law & Darwin College, University of Cambridge, UK (March 2016)
  • Speaker and Session Chair - Energy Transitions Conference 2016, University of Eastern Finland, Finland (March 2016)
  • Guest Lecture – LLM Masters Course, School of Law, University of Reading, UK (February 2016)
  • Invited Expert – Roundtable on ‘Renewable Energy Finance’ (February 2016)
  • Invited Speaker – School of Law Seminar Series, University of Aberdeen, UK (February 2016)
  • Invited Expert – Roundtable on ‘EU Gas Supply and Pipeline Development’ (January 2016)
  • External Examiner LLM Programme, University of Wolverhampton (December-ongoing)
  • Co-Organiser (with Professor Kim Talus), Workshop ‘The Development of the Theory of Energy Law’, Helsinki, Finland (November 2015).
  • Invited Speaker – Future of Energy Law , Energy Law Business Forum (November 2015)
  • Invited Speaker – The EU Energy Union, United Kingdom Energy Research Centre – Annual Meeting (November 2015)
  • QMUL-ELSA – “Is it Worh Doing an LLM” (November 2015)
  • Guest Lecturer – “Energy Subsidies and Stranded Assets” Masterclass, Department of Geography and Sustainable Development, University of St. Andrews (November 2015)
  • Invited Speaker – “Transitioning Scottish Energy Law PhD Graduates into Employment” Aberdeen Conference (October 2015)
  • Panel Speaker - The EU Energy Union, The Energy Forum, Queen Mary University of London (October 2015)
  • Interview with Russian TV station (RTVi) – on Renewable Energy Development in Scotland (in Russian) (October 2015)
  • External LLM Examiner – University of West Indies, Barbados, (Ongoing)
  • Invited Panel Speaker – Arctic Resources Futures - UCL Event: (October 2015)
  • Conference Presentation – Energy Infrastructure Development in the Arctic - UCL (October 2015)
  • Guest Lecture - “Introduction to Energy Law” Engineering Masters Programme, University of Leeds (October 2015)
  • Thomson Reuters Practical Law – “Legal Issues Faced by the Energy Sector" - In Interview (September 2015)
  • External PhD Examiner - on ‘Nuclear Liability Law’ (September 2015)
  • Lexis-Nexis “Major Change or Just Finishing the EMR Process” – In Interview