||Calcification of valve cusps restricts forward flow; forceful ejection from ventricle into systemic circulation. Caused by congenital bicuspid valves, and rheumatic heart disease.|
|Type and Detection||Heard over aortic area; ejection sound at second right intercostal border.|
|Findings on Examination
||Midsystolic murmur, medium pitch, coarse, diamond-shaped, crescendo-decrescendo; radiates down left sternal border (sometimes to apex) and to carotid with palpable thrill.|
|S1 normal often followed by ejection click; S2 soft or absent
and may not to be split; S4 palpable.
|Normal Heart Sound (441K)|
|Mitral Stenosis (424K)|
|Pulmonary Stenosis (438K)|
|Aortic Regurgitation (491)|
|Mitral Regurgitation (438K)|
compiled by Dr R S MacWalter, Consultant Physician, Tayside Universtiy Hospitals Hospitals NHS Trust, Honorary Senior Lecutrer, University of Dundee, Ninewells Hospital & Medical School, Dundee, Scotland, Duncan MacWalter and Gordon MacWalter.