Martin Kirkbride

Dr Martin Kirkbride

Senior Lecturer

  • Tel: +44 (0)1382 384513
  • Email: m.p.kirkbride@dundee.ac.uk
  • Geography, School of Social Sciences, University of Dundee, Perth Rd, Dundee, DD1 4HN

Research

Primary Research interests

I am a cold-climate geomorphologist with 30 years’ research experience. My research aims to build links between process dynamics and landform chronologies, especially in present and past glacial environments. This involves research on glaciology and debris transport on modern glaciers, and mapping, dating and interpretation of relict landsystems. My current research interests are outlined below.

I have worked on a variety of themes in the past, and publications arising from these themes are listed. These themes include lake-calving glaciers in New Zealand and Italy, tephrochronology and Holocene glacier fluctuations in Iceland, long-term evolution of landscapes of glacial erosion, and rock glaciers in New Zealand.

Current research

Debris-covered glaciers

The formation of supraglacial debris covers has been shown to influence the mass balance, flow and climatic response of glaciers in important ways, during both negative and positive mass balance. Research on European glaciers (in association with Dr P. Deline, Université de Savoie,  Dr B. Brock, University of Northumbria, Prof  C. Smiraglia and Dr G. Diolaiuti, University of Milan) is addressing the question of how reduced glacier extents under warming climate will affect their surface condition, and thereby their response to climate change. This involves a variety of projects on the debris transport system (e.g. Kirkbride & Deline 2013), on modelling of sub-debris ablation (Brock et al. 2010; Fyffe et al., 2014), as well as wider contributions to alpine glacial geomorphology (e.g. Deline & Kirkbride 2009; Kirkbride & Winkler 2012; Lukas et al., 2013). The focus of my research in recent years has been the small Glacier d’Estelette, which Philip Deline and I have been monitoring since 2004.

Glacial history of Scotland

I am researching the extent and timing of glacier advances phases in the eastern Highlands of Scotland, with a view to refining and extending known chronologies. In the Cairngorm Mountains, field mapping has revealed a more complex sequence of deglaciation than hitherto recognised, including ice-sheet readvance, ice-dammed lake formation and multiple moraine stages. Measurements of boulder edge-roundness (Kirkbride 2005) allow bouldery tills dating from the Younger Dryas Stadial to be distinguished from older deposits. Application of cosmogenic 10Be dating confirms the Younger Dryas age of cirque moraines, but has also led to the discovery of a Little Ice Age glacier (Kirkbride et al. 2014), which has prompted considerable media interest and some controversy (see links below). Further research is in progress.

Scotland had a glacier up to 1700s, say scientists

The Cairngorms glacier controversy: where now?

Recent Research Grants

My research has been supported by the following sources: NERC Small Grants, NERC Airborne Research and Survey Facility, NERC Radiocarbon and Cosmogenic Isotope Analysis Facility Steering Committees, the Royal Society of Edinburgh, The Carnegie Trust, The Moray Endowment Fund, and Scottish Natural Heritage.

Background

Academic Background

YearDegree/University
1985-89 Ph.D. Department of Geology, University of Canterbury (New Zealand)
1980-84 BSc. Geography and Geology, University of St Andrews

Appointments

YearTitle/University
1999 - Senior Lecturer, Geography, University of Dundee
1991-1999 Lecturer, Geography, University of Dundee
1990-91 Teaching Fellow, Department of Geography, University of Aberdeen
1989-90 Lecturer, Department of Geography, University of Edinburgh

Professional Memberships

  • International Glaciological Society
  • Quaternary Research Association
  • Comitato Glaciologico Italiano

Publications

Selected Recent Publications

Deline, P., Gruber, S., Delaloye, R., Fischer, L., Geertsema, M., Giardino, M., Hasler, A., Kirkbride, M., Krautblatter, M., Magnin, F., McColl, S., Ravanel, L. and Schoeneich, P. (in press).  Ice loss and slope stability in high-mountain regions. Chapter 17 in Haeberli, W. and Whiteman, C. (editors) Snow- and Ice-Related Hazards. Elsevier.

Fyffe, C.L.; Reid, T.; Brock, B.W.; Kirkbride, M.P. and Diotri, F. (in press) A distributed energy-balance melt model of a debris-covered glacier. Journal of Glaciology.

Kirkbride, M.P.; Everest, J.D.; Benn, D.I., Gheorghiu, D. and Dawson, A.G. (2014). Late Holocene and Younger Dryas glaciers in the northern Cairngorm Mountains, Scotland. The Holocene 24, 141-148.

Kirkbride, M.P. and Deline, P. (2013) The formation of supraglacial debris covers by primary dispersal from transverse englacial debris bands. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 38, 1779-1792.

Lukas, S.; Benn, D. I.; Boston, C.M.; Brook, M.S.; Coray, S.; Evans, D.J.A.; Graf, A.; Kellerer-Pirklbauer-Eulenstein, A.; Kirkbride, M.P.; Krabbendam, M.; Lovell, H.; Machiedo, M.; Mills, S.C.; Nye, K.; Reinardy, B.T.I.; Ross, F.H. and Signer, M. (2013). Clast shape analysis and clast transport paths in glacial environments: a critical review of methods and the role of lithology. Earth Science Reviews 121, 96-116.     

Kirkbride, M.P. and Winkler, S. (2012). Correlation of late Quaternary glacier chronologies: impact of climate variability, glacier response, and chronological resolution. Quaternary Science Reviews 46, 1-29.

Kirkbride, M.P. (2011a) Debris-Covered Glaciers. In Singh P.; Singh V.P. & Haritashya U. K.  (editors) Encyclopeadia of Snow, Ice and Glaciers. Encyclopeadia of Earth Sciences Series, Springer, 190-192.

Kirkbride, M.P. (2011b) Landscapes of Glacial Erosion. In  Singh P.; Singh V.P. & Haritashya U. K. (editors) Encyclopeadia of Snow, Ice and Glaciers. Encyclopeadia of Earth Sciences Series, Springer, 694-697.

Kirkbride, M.P. (2010) Climate change: a glacial test of timing. Nature 467, 160-161.

Kirkbride, M.P. and Bell, C.M. (2010) Edge-roundness of boulders of Torridonian Sandstone (northwest Scotland): applications for relative dating and implications for warm and cold climate weathering rates. Boreas 39, 187-198.

Brock, B.; Mihalcea, C.; Kirkbride, M.; Diolaiuti, C.; Cutler, M. and Smiraglia, C. (2010) Meteorology and surface energy fluxes in the 2005-2007 ablation seasons at Miage debris-covered glacier, Mont Blanc Massif, Italian Alps. Journal of Geophysical Research115, D09106.

Deline, P. and Kirkbride, M.P. (2009). Rock avalanches on a glacier and morainic complex in Haut Val Ferret (Mont Blanc Massif, Italy): Geomorphology 103, 80-92.

Kirkbride M.P. (2009c) Datation des moraines Holocènes d’Islande par tephrochronologie. Collection EDYTEM, Cahiers de Géographie 8, 65-78.

Mazué, R. ; Deline, P. and Kirkbride, M.P. (2009) Suivi de l’évolution de la couverture détritique d’un glacier noir par photo-comparaison. Le glacier d’Estelette, Massif du Mont Blanc.Collection EDYTEM, Cahiers de Géographie 8, 167-174.

Deline P., Kirkbride M.P., Ravanel L. and Ravello M. (2008). The Tré-la-Tâte rockfall onto the Glacier de la Lex Blanche (Mont Blanc Massif, Italy) in September 2008. Geografia Fisica e Dinamica Quaternaria 31, 251-254.

Kirkbride, M.P. and Dugmore, A.J. (2008) Two millennia of glacier advances in southern Iceland dated by tephrochronology. Quaternary Research 70, 398-411.

Brook, M.S.; Kirkbride, M.P. and Brock, B.W. (2008). Temporal constraints on glacial valley cross-profile evolution: Two Thumb Range, central Southern Alps, New Zealand. Geomorphology 97, 24-34.

Mihalcea, C.; Brock, B.W.; Diolaiuti, G.; D'Agata C.; Citterio, M.; Kirkbride, M.P.; Cutler, M.E.J. and Smiraglia, C. (2007) Using ASTER satellite and ground-based temperature measurements to derive supraglacial debris cover and thickness patterns on Miage Glacier (Mont Blanc massif, Italy). Cold Regions Science and Technology (in press) doi: 10.1016/j.coldregions.2007.3.004

Brook, M.S.; Kirkbride, M.P. and Brock, B.W. (2006a). Quantified timescale for glacial valley cross-profile evolution in alpine mountains. Geology 34, 637-640.

Brook, M.S.; Kirkbride, M.P. and Brock, B.W. (2006b). Cirque development in a steadily uplifting range: rates of erosion and long-term morphometric change in alpine cirques in the Ben Ohau Range, New Zealand. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 31, 1167-1175.

Diolaiuti, G.; Citterio, M.; Carnielli, T.; D'Agata C.; Kirkbride, M.P. and Smiraglia, C. (2006) Rates, processes and morphology of alpine lake calving at Miage Glacier (Italian Alps). Hydrological Processes 20, 2233-2244.

Kirkbride, M.P.; Dugmore, A.J and Brazier, V. (2006). Radiocarbon dating of mid-Holocene megaflood deposits in the Jökulsá á Fjöllum, Iceland. The Holocene 16 605-609.

Kirkbride, M.P. and Dugmore, A.J. (2006). Responses of mountain ice caps in central Iceland to Holocene climate change. Quaternary Science Reviews 25, 1692-1707.

Kirkbride, M.P. (2005). Boulder edge-roundness as an indicator of relative age: a Lochnagar case study. Scottish Geographical Journal 121, 219-236.

Kirkbride, M.P. and Dugmore, A.J. (2005). Holocene solifluction history reconstructed using tephrochronology. In Harris, C. and Murton, J. (editors), Cryospheric Systems: Glaciers and Permafrost. Geological Society, London, Special Publications 242, 145-155.

Diolaiuti, G.; Smiraglia, C.; Kirkbride, M.P. Benn, D.I. and D'Agata C. (2005). Calving processes and lake evolution at Miage Glacier (Mont Blanc, Italian Alps) Annals of Glaciology 40, 207-214.

Kirkbride, M.P. and Dugmore, A.J. (2005). Holocene solifluction history reconstructed using tephrochronology. In Harris, C. and Murton, J. (editors), Cryospheric Systems: Glaciers and Permafrost. Geological Society, London, Special Publications 242, 145-155.

Kirkbride, M.P. (2004). Scree. In Harrison, S., Pile, S. and Thrift, N. (editors), Patterned Ground: Entanglements of Nature and Culture. London: Reaktion Books, 64-66.

Benn, D., Kirkbride, M.P., Owen, L.A. and Brazier, V. (2004). Glaciated valley landsystems. In Evans, D.J.A. (editor), Glacial Landsystems. Edward Arnold.

Deline, P., Diolaiuti, G., Kirkbride, M.P., Mortara, G., Pavan, M. Smiraglia, C. and Tamburini, A. (2004). Drainage of ice-contact Miage Lake (Mont Blanc Massif, Italy) in September 2004. Geografia Fisica e Dimanica Quaternaria 27, 113-119.

Brook, M.S., Kirkbride, M.P. and Brock, B.W. (2004). Rock strength and development of glacial valley morphology in the Scottish Highlands and northwest Iceland. Geografiska Annaler 86A, 225-234.

Ashburn, D., Kirkbride, M.P. and Dugmore, A.J. (2003). Post-settlement land disturbance indicated by magnetic susceptibility of aeolian soils at Seljaland. Northern Studies 37, 81-94.

Brook, M.S., Brock, B.W. and Kirkbride, M.P. (2003). Glacial outlet valley size - ice drainage area relationships: some considerations. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 28, 645-653.

Kirkbride, M.P. and Dugmore, A.J. (2003). Glaciological response to distal tephra fallout from the 1947 eruption of Hekla, south Iceland. Journal of Glaciology 49, 420-428.

Warren, C.R. and Kirkbride, M.P. (2003). Calving speed and climatic sensitivity of New Zealand lake-calving glaciers. Annals of Glaciology 36, 173-178.

Selected earlier publications

Kirkbride, M.P. (2002). Icelandic climate and glacier fluctuations through the terminus of the "Little Ice Age". Polar Geography 26, 116-133.

Kirkbride, M.P. and Dugmore, A.J. (2001a) Can lichenometry be used to date the "Little Ice Age" glacial maximum in Iceland? Climatic Change 48, 151-167.

Kirkbride, M.P. and Dugmore, A.J. (2001b) Timing and significance of mid-Holocene glacier advances in northern and central Iceland. Journal of Quaternary Science 16, 145-153.

Kirkbride, M.P. (2000) Ice marginal geomorphology and Holocene expansion of debris-covered Tasman Glacier, New Zealand. In Nakawo, M., Raymond, C. and Fountain, A. (Eds.) Debris-Covered Glaciers. IAHS Publication 264, 211-217.

Thomson, M.H., Kirkbride, M.P. & Brock, B.W. (2000) Twentieth-century surface elevation change of the Miage Glacier, Italian Alps. In Nakawo, M., Raymond, C. and Fountain, A. (Eds.) Debris-Covered Glaciers. IAHS Publication 264, 219-225.

Kirkbride, M.P. & Warren, C.R. (1999) Tasman Glacier, New Zealand: Twentieth-century thinning and predicted calving retreat. Global and Planetary Change 22, 11-28.

Kirkbride, M.P. & Brazier, V. (1998) A critical evaluation of the use of glacial chronologies in climatic reconstruction, with reference to New Zealand. Quaternary Proceedings 6, 55-64.

Brazier, V., Kirkbride, M.P. and Gordon, J.E. (1998) Active ice sheet deglaciation and ice-dammed lakes in the northern Cairngorm Mountains, Scotland. Boreas 27, 297-310.

Kirkbride, M.P. & Matthews, D. (1997) The role of fluvial and glacial erosion in landscape evolution: the Ben Ohau Range, New Zealand. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 22, 317-327.

Kirkbride, M.P. & Brazier, V. (1995) On the sensitivity of Holocene talus-derived rock glaciers to climate change in the Ben Ohau Range, Southern Alps, New Zealand. Journal of Quaternary Science 10 (4), 353-365.

Kirkbride, M.P. (1993) The temporal significance of transitions from melting to calving termini at glaciers in the central Southern Alps, New Zealand. The Holocene 3 (3), 232-240.